Chapter 3 Study Guide

 

cell

plasma membrane

nucleus

cytoplasm

cytosol

organelle

fluid mosaic model

lipid bilayer

largest component of lipid bilayer = phospholipids (75%)

amphipathic

integral proteins

peripheral proteins

glycocalyx

membrane fluidity-do lipids move laterally?-do they flip-flop readily?

lipid bilayer-is it self-repairing?

what increases or decreases fluidity? cholesterol? double bonds in fatty acids?

permeable

impermeable

selectively permeable

lipid layer is permeable to: nonpolar, uncharged molecules

lipid layer is impermeable to: ions, charged or polar molecules

membrane potential

diffusion

passive transport

facilitated diffusion

active transport

primary active transport

secondary active transport

antiporters

symporters

osmosis

isotonic solution

hypotonic solution

hypertonic solution

exocytosis

endocytosis

receptor mediated endocytosis

phagocytosis

pinocytosis

transcytosis

cytoskeleton

microfilaments

microvilli

intermediate filaments

microtubules

centrosome

cilia

flagella

ribosomes

endoplasmic reticulum (ER)

rough ER

smooth ER

golgi complex

lysosomes

mitochondrion (plural = mitochondria)

nucleus

nucleolus (plural = nucleoli)

chromosome

chromatid

gene

genome

replication

transcription

RNA polymerase

promoter

terminator

intron

exon

translation

tRNA

codon

anticodon

polyribosome

genetic engineering

recombinant DNA

mitosis

meiosis

crossing over

cell cycle

interphase

prophase

metaphase

anaphase

telophase

apoptosis

necrosis