CHAPTER 2 Study Guide

chemistry

chemical element

atom

atomic number

proton (+) nucleus

neutron (0) nucleus

electron (-) shell

isotope

mass number

radioactive isotope

half life

atomic mass unit (dalton)

ion

molecule

molecular formula

compound

covalent bond

single covalent bond

double covalent bond

triple covalent bond

nonpolar covalent bond

polar covalent bond

ionic bond

cation

anion

electrolyte

hydrogen bond

chemical reaction

metabolism

exergonic reactions

endergonic reactions

activation energy

catalyst

synthesis reaction

anabolism

decomposition reaction

catabolism

exchange reaction

solution

solute

solvent

concentration

percentage (grams of X / 100 ml of solution)

mole

molarity (moles of X / 1000 ml of solution)

hydrophilic

hydrophobic

dehydration synthesis reaction

hydrolysis

mixture

colloid

suspension

pH scale

pH < 7 = acidic, pH = 7 = neutral, pH > 7 = basic (alkaline)

acid

hydrogen ion

base

hydroxide ion

salt

buffer systems

organic compounds

given a structural drawing of a functional group be able to name it

(also know the name given to a molecule containing the functional group)

hydroxyl (alcohol)

sulfhydryl (thiol)

carbonyl (ketone)

carbonyl (aldehyde)

carboxyl (carboxylic acid)

ester (ester)

phosphate (phosphate)

amino (amine)

macromolecule

polymer

isomer

carbohydrates (main function energy source)

monosaccharides

disaccharides

polysaccharides

lipids (main functions energy source, structural component of membranes)

triglycerides

saturated fats

monounsaturated fats

polyunsaturated fats

phospholipids

steroids

amphipathic

lipoproteins

proteins (numerous functions: structural, regulatory, contractile, immunological, transport, catalytic)

amino acids

peptide bond

polypeptide

primary structure

secondary structure

alpha helix

pleated sheet

tertiary structure

quaternary structure

denaturation

enzyme

apoenzyme

cofactor

coenzyme

substrate

enzymes lower the activation energy

nucleic acids (main function information)

deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)

ribonucleic acid (RNA)

nucleotides

adenine (A), guanine (G), thymine (T), cytosine (C)

pairing rules: T pairs with A, G pairs with C

DNA and RNA how are they different?

adenosine triphosphate (ATP)